Imbalanced Adversarial Training with Reweighting. (arXiv:2107.13639v1 [cs.LG])

Adversarial training has been empirically proven to be one of the most
effective and reliable defense methods against adversarial attacks. However,
almost all existing studies about adversarial training are focused on balanced
datasets, where each class has an equal amount of training examples. Research
on adversarial training with imbalanced training datasets is rather limited. As
the initial effort to investigate this problem, we reveal the facts that
adversarially trained models present two distinguished behaviors from naturally
trained models in imbalanced datasets: (1) Compared to natural training,
adversarially trained models can suffer much worse performance on
under-represented classes, when the training dataset is extremely imbalanced.
(2) Traditional reweighting strategies may lose efficacy to deal with the
imbalance issue for adversarial training. For example, upweighting the
under-represented classes will drastically hurt the model’s performance on
well-represented classes, and as a result, finding an optimal reweighting value
can be tremendously challenging. In this paper, to further understand our
observations, we theoretically show that the poor data separability is one key
reason causing this strong tension between under-represented and
well-represented classes. Motivated by this finding, we propose Separable
Reweighted Adversarial Training (SRAT) to facilitate adversarial training under
imbalanced scenarios, by learning more separable features for different
classes. Extensive experiments on various datasets verify the effectiveness of
the proposed framework.