Solving multivariate polynomial systems and an invariant from commutative algebra. (arXiv:1706.06319v6 [cs.CR] UPDATED)

The complexity of computing the solutions of a system of multivariate
polynomial equations by means of Groebner bases computations is upper bounded
by a function of the solving degree. In this paper, we discuss how to
rigorously estimate the solving degree of a system, focusing on systems arising
within public-key cryptography. In particular, we show that it is upper bounded
by, and often equal to, the Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity of the ideal
generated by the homogenization of the equations of the system, or by the
equations themselves in case they are homogeneous. We discuss the underlying
commutative algebra and clarify under which assumptions the commonly used
results hold. In particular, we discuss the assumption of being in generic
coordinates (often required for bounds obtained following this type of
approach) and prove that systems that contain the field equations or their fake
Weil descent are in generic coordinates. We also compare the notion of solving
degree with that of degree of regularity, which is commonly used in the
literature. We complement the paper with some examples of bounds obtained
following the strategy that we describe.